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The Internet Identity Layer

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Example: Delay by session for PTD and CTD

CTD and PTD have been extensively used and found to be effective with a variety of students with and without disabilities, across both discrete and chained skills, in both individual and small group settings, for learners from toddlers to adults. Like SLP, CTD has been used in conjunction with new technologies like SMART boards to teach children with disabilities. Co Woman Virgin Woolfelt Cape Black Size XS Co Outlet Locations Cheap Online Classic 1wNaA

A modification of the time delay procedures was presented by Schuster and colleagues in 1992. Genuine Cheap Price Womens DownQuilted Cotton Sweater Moncler Free Shipping Lowest Price Free Shipping Visit Cheap Online Store Manchester XnSBR7
[20] For this procedure, the same prompt is given during every session (a controlling prompt; similar to CTD PTD). However, the prompt is not delayed in time. During every instructional session, the prompt is immediately given to the student after the stimulus is presented (see 0 second delay sessions, above). The learner does not have a chance to emit an unprompted response during these sessions. However, immediately before each session, a probe session is conducted to test whether the child can emit an unprompted correct response. So, using an example similar to the one above, a teacher might present a picture and ask "What is this?" and then immediately give a prompt ("dog") during instructional sessions. Each day prior to instructional sessions, the teacher would ask "What is this?" but provide no prompts. This probe session is done to test whether the student has acquired the material. Instruction ends when the learner reaches a criterion level (e.g., 100% correct for 3 consecutive days) during probe sessions.

The primary advantage of simultaneous prompting, when compared with time delay procedures, is that a learner does not need to have the prerequisite skill of waiting for a prompt if he or she cannot independently emit the behavior. It is also a less complicated procedure for teachers to use because there are fewer response variations (e.g., unprompted corrects and unprompted incorrects are not possible) and fewer prompt variations (e.g., no need to vary prompt intrusiveness or delay).

Simultaneous prompting has been used with learners from three years of age through adulthood, and with learners with learning disabilities, intellectual disabilities, developmental delays, and learners without disabilities. [21] A recent study suggests that it may not be necessary to conduct probes every day, high waisted tailored trousers Pink amp; Purple N°21 Clearance Lowest Price z1toEmaAA
but further research is needed to determine how frequency of probe sessions affects efficiency of the procedure.

All of the discussed response prompting procedures can be considered evidence based practices using the criteria suggested by Horner and colleagues in 2005. Sea Printed Mini Skirt Ebay IBBfx5PkG
[24] Studies have shown that response prompting is effective for learners from preschool through adulthood, in a variety of instructional contexts (e.g., embedded into large group activities, during small group direct instruction). In addition, studies have shown that a variety of instructional agents, including teachers, assistants, and peers with and without disabilities, can accurately use prompting procedures.

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February 6th, 2018

The Fragility of Existence

With uncompromising directness, Margaret Courtney-Clarke photographs the lives and landscapes of Namibia.

By David Goldblatt

Margaret Courtney-Clarke, 6 December 2014 © the artist

Except perhaps for a thread of elegance that runs through most of her work, not any of Margaret Courtney-Clarke’s earlier photography prepared me for the work in her book Cry Sadness into the Coming Rain (2017). No hint of what she has done here could I find in my memory of our collaborations of the late seventies. Nor could I link what she has done in the past few years in Namibia with her photography on the art of African women in traditional societies. Fifteen years of work, unaccompanied journeys into remote parts of Africa, hardships, fevers and great risks resulted in three seminal and definitive books, yet all of them differed fundamentally from what we have here.

Margaret Courtney-Clarke, 9 January 2015 © the artist

Margaret returned to Namibia, the country of her birth and upbringing, in 2008 to live in Swakopmund on the edge of the Namib desert. Recovering from a life-threatening illness and the effects of its treatment, one might be forgiven for thinking that she would adopt a quiet life and write her memoirs. Instead, in photographs quite unlike anything she (or others) had done before, she embraced the reality of the Namib desert and its people with an extraordinary energy, acuity and devotion.

Margaret Courtney-Clarke, , 4 March 2014 © the artist

The photographs she produced are about existence. They come from an awareness of the fragility of her own existence and from a symbiotic grasp of the ancient rhythms of the desert and the coast, the ways of life of its people, the traces of their passing and the seemingly inexorable advance of corporate and mining development. The photographs are bare of nostalgia, fat or facile certainties. They are eloquent of raw existence and offer faint glimmers of hope, of life scratched from an appallingly inhospitable terrain in the face of overwhelming societal transition. Yet these photographs attain a searing grace which is in no sense false to the reality but is, on the contrary, a rare synthesis of what is there with an intensely heightened and uncompromisingly honest vision.

Margaret Courtney-Clarke, , 26 April, 2016 © the artist

Margaret’s relationship with the people she has photographed in this work is practical and intimate, never patronising, almost that of family rather than of compassionate observer. It is of a piece with the wholeness of her embrace. Using the sand of the desert she built a dwelling of sandbags with a family who had no home. She is a trusted friend of the women and children who scavenge the garbage dumps. She puts children into school and confronts municipal officials over their treatment of landless people. Deep into the desert she goes to friends and she knows their life. She celebrated her birthday with a family of peasant farmers who slaughtered a goat in her honour. When she heard of two children who had died of snakebite, she raised money for their coffins and travelled 230 kilometers on a rough desert track to be at their funeral.

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